|Module Title||Studies in Professional Issues and Research in Education|
|Student reflection (include a couple of points under each heading)|
|Points for development highlighted in my last submission (take from your most recent and relevant feedback e.g., tutorial, draft assignment)
– You need to carefully plan and think-through your writing before you complete the assignment. Some of your ideas seem a little disorganised and would benefit from the development of a coherent, structured argument. Your academic writing style needs work in places. Make sure that you approach the literature in a critical way, analysing rather than just describing.
– Proof-read the essay carefully for typos and errors in technical accuracy and sentence construction. See notes in main body of the essay. There is considerable work to be done in this area.
|I have addressed previously identified points for development by
– Proof-read – Not only by me multiple times but by fellow scholars and academics
– I have also fixed the structure of my assignment with the use of heading and subheading; everything seems to flow much better with links being given at the correct times
|I confirm I have read and understood the academic misconduct statement. ✔|
|I do agree that the department may retain a copy of my work Delete as appropriate|
|Masters Level Pass|
|You show evidence of outstanding relevant reading and a highly advanced grasp of current major issues in the field. This knowledge has been reviewed critically with insight, independence and originality of thought.
Arguments and the presentation of evidence demonstrate highly sophisticated reasoning and are exceptionally clear, well-focused and cogent, considered to be of quality suitable for publication.
You have demonstrated that you have achieved the specific learning outcomes of the module to an exceptional level.
The work is very well written with accurate and appropriate referencing.
|You show evidence of extensive relevant reading and an advanced grasp of current major issues in the field. This knowledge has been reviewed critically with insight and independence of thought.
Arguments and the presentation of evidence demonstrate sophisticated reasoning and are clear, well focused and cogent.
You have demonstrated that you have achieved the specific learning outcomes of the module to an excellent level.
The work is very well written with accurate and appropriate referencing.
|You show consistency and fluency in discussing and evaluating evidence and theories drawn from a wide range of sources.
You demonstrate an ability to relate this reading to your particular educational field and you have clearly understood and assimilated the relevant literature.
You have demonstrated that they have achieved the specific learning outcomes of the module to a very good extent
The work is well written with accurate and appropriate referencing.
|You show clear evidence of knowledge and understanding but there may be little development of ideas or critical comment. There is reference to relevant reading, though not necessarily extensive.
Within these limitations there will be indications that you have grasped fundamental concepts and procedures in the field.
You have demonstrated that you have achieved the specific learning outcomes of the module adequately.
The work is well written with accurate and appropriate referencing
|Masters Level Fail|
(very bad fail)
|You have not demonstrated to a satisfactory extent that you have read and understood the essential texts of the module. There are weak and inaccurate answers to questions. There is confusion and incoherence and unfocused analysis. You have demonstrated that you have not achieved the specific learning M Level outcomes for the module adequately. The work is written to a satisfactory level with accurate and mostly appropriate referencing.||A bad fail represents a significant overall failure to achieve the module learning outcomes, reading is limited or restricted to non-academic texts and key concepts are inadequately discussed.
|A very bad fail indicates a submission that does not attempt to address the module learning outcomes. It shall be deemed a non-valid attempt.
|Failure to submit or a plagiarised assessment.|
Department of Educational Studies
This is an interesting assignment and you have surveyed some literature on the subject and offered a degree of discussion. Overall, however, the essay lacks a coherent, developed argument and there are too many errors in technical accuracy and written expression. I think it needed more careful planning and more time spent on research and thinking.
A key issue with the essay is that it is difficult to follow your argument in places. At times it reads like a collection of ideas about different aspects of teaching, rather than a coherent argument about the range of strategies used to develop motivation in students. You need to critically investigate the literature you discuss and use this to analyse your own practice and observations. There is not enough of your teaching experience in the essay to contextualise the theoretical discussion of the research. You also need to locate your reflections in the research and there is little of this in that section of the assignment.
Avoid unsupported assertions. If you make a statement, support it with reference to the research and cite a source from your reference list. Also ensure that all references are cited and be careful with accuracy in Harvard Referencing. Check the guide on the Goldsmiths VLE carefully.
The conclusion is far too brief and needed more thought and time spent on it. You should summarise your key arguments and pick out the most important points, then consider how undertaking this assignment will affect your practice in the classroom in the future. Aim for around 500 words.
The assignment needs a careful proof-read. There are issues with academic writing style and sentence construction, in addition to other technical accuracy problems. Support is available with this through the Goldsmiths Library, if you think that would be useful.
|Points for future development
· There are some errors in your Harvard referencing. You need to give a page number if using a direct quotation, and there are some inaccurate references in the assignment. Some assertions are not referenced at all. Check the guide on the Goldsmiths VLE to ensure accuracy.
Recommended Grade: 44%. M-Level Fail
Tutor: Jez Pinfold
Date: December, 2021
- This is a recommended grade which may be changed at the Examination Board
|Title of assignment / dissertation (if applicable)|
|To what extent do different strategies encourage motivation in Year 7 Pupils based on Brookfield’s Model|
To what extent do different strategies encourage motivation in Year 7 Pupils based on Brookfield’s Model
A Chinese proverb says that if one plans for a year ahead, they can plant rice; a decade in the future, plant trees, but effectively implementing a lifetime of preparation requires educating the coming generation. This quote speaks to the value played by teachers in society. However, the best theme focuses not on teaching facts but on inspiring children to think. This attribute can be triggered through the motivation found within the learning setup. Institutions prioritise social collaboration, self-determination theory, teacher-student relations, intrinsic incentives, parental participation, and cognitive engagement. With technology on the rise, online learning started to become the norm for many pupils, motivation to adapt to these adjustments was vital. Motivation is a period of focused energy allowing individuals to reach their goals and aims (Chambers, 2007). I would argue that Teachers and Parents are both equally important in motivation, a small-scale study was carried out to assess the relationship between parental autonomous motivation and child autonomous motivation, self-efficacy, and engagement during homework. The results, which involved 122 parents and their children, showed that the higher the parental autonomous motivation, the more their children perceived them as autonomous supportive. However, supporting with motivation developed greater engagement in homework, developed autonomous motivation and self-efficacy (Moè, Katz and Alesi, 2018).
The background of X Academy
X Academy, located in London, is a diverse school with a population of 1,062 students. Around 92 % of students are of minority ethnic origin and over 50 different languages are spoken by the students. The gender percentage consists of 52 % male, 48% female with a total of 84% Non-SEN and 16% of SEN. Around 78% of pupils studying at X academy, English language is not their first language, as well as 34% of X pupils reading above their chronological age. X academy consists of four main school values integrity, community, courage, and mastery. All of this coming together to push X academies main mission, to ensure that every pupil will leave X academy culturally aware, articulate, and confident. Additionally, pupils will be able to pursue careers that they are passionate about and be able to live happy, healthful, and fulfilled lives.
Previously, known as a Community School underwent a change in 2014 to become an academy to get a fresh start with sights on enhancing and developing the school. Ofsted report showing that before turning into an academy, X community school was given ‘inadequate’ as its overall effectiveness. Within 5 years, with hard-work and diligence, X Academy was able to prosper in vital areas. Ofsted recognised the huge progress the school had made and in 2019 categorised X academy as a ‘good’ school and that the leadership and management of the school is ‘outstanding’.
As a trainee Biology teacher working at X academy, I want to discover the finest practices in which I can motivate pupils of Year 7. The reason I have chosen to concentrate on a Year 7 class as majority of the classes I will be teaching in my training year are Year 7. In addition to this, I am keen to develop and put into practice the skills that I will learn throughout this year. Also provide pupils with the methods to successfully transition from primary to secondary education. This year for X academy had a surplus number of Year 7’s joining us, X academy has had with around 227 pupils from Year 7 alone. Furthermore, building on this, another reason I chosen this specific year as my subject of study is that I will teaching the low attaining students with many of them having English as a second language. A few pupils in the year being diagnosed with SEND. It is essential that I can develop and maintain the excellence of the motivational strategies that I will carry out in lessons and support my pupils to overcome their worries and achieve the greatest academic success, that they can for themselves.
There are different ways in where motivation can aid students, intrinsic motivation involves activities that stimulate the individual’s interest and giving them the feel of spontaneity in their performance. Nevertheless, we also have extrinsic motivation which requires a good link between activities and verbal/physical external rewards being associated with the competition of tasks, challenges or even difficulties from the individual (Antunes, Pina-Oliveira, Apostolico and Puggina, 2020). X academy has the benefit of a merit system in place, if students’ complete classwork/homework, have excellent behaviour, verbal/physical work being completed to a high enough standard etc will be rewarded at the end of the lesson with merits. Once a milestone of merits has been received, their parents/guardians will get a text message/email exclaiming their achievement of merits reached “X students reached a new milestone! 300 merits achieved this year. Please congratulate her. We are proud of her!”. Additionally, X students will receive other benefits such as lockers and certificates for gaining a specific number of merits.
Research in America, conducted in the last decade has shown the cultural context of parental influence on a child’s motivation has been mixed (Hill and Tyson, 2009). Research suggests that there are some issues with African American perspective of trusting some of the teachers and schools on accounts of general discrimination. In addition to parental influence, it is important to understand the cultural differences, special educational needs, gender, and ethnic minority groups. This will be explored within the essay; following the literature review, I will expand on the key features that make an individual who they are, and ways motivation can be used to accomplish achievements. Following this, I will consider the impact of culture on motivation. As a teacher from an ethnic minority background, I am able to indulge in the impact of this from my own perspective as trainee teacher, from the perspective of other teachers at X academy.
According to Taylor 2017, a student’s academic success is a combination of several factors. This article presents student’s academic success is a combination of several factors. These factors include community aspects beyond schoolwork, such as gender, culture, language, and socioeconomic status (Taylor, 2017, 55). However, teachers utilise differentiation to create a level of instruction that considers a child’s strengths and weaknesses. Though it is misinterpreted as a scaffolding technique, its main gain can be felt even among academically gifted learners. This incentive aids in peer-to-peer teaching practices that boost inclusive themes in a lesson (Taylor, 2017, 56). Classrooms today fail to consider interests, preparedness, and profiles in teachers and learners combined. Additionally, aspects such as gender play a significant role as participants choose a socially acceptable field regardless of teachers’ efforts to break sex-specific perceptions. Therefore, adopting differentiation successfully moves teaching away from the standard, ‘one size fits all’ approach to addressing learner issues and needs, motivating students to learn.
Learners are also able to gain a lot significantly from engagement and motivation. Research indicates that inspired students undertake longer tasks, improve on quality, and have a higher academic performance. For example, pupils learning Mathematics or sitting for their GCSE suffer from conditions unexposed to these themes in their school. These students may undergo problems they are unaware of, some are demoralised and possess low expectations for themselves. Additionally, they no longer feel like they belong within the social construct, which leads to insecurities. These uncertainties can manifest through uneasy interactions and intimidation tactics. Some learners also report anxiety when presented with problems or data they must solve. These issues are compounded by possible cultural repercussions and peer pressure from fellow learners (Pearson Education Limited, 2020). Hence strategies such as timely assessment, feedback on achievements, positive student-teacher affiliations, and ties the bridge between teachers and their students.
Motivation – Intrinsic & Extrinsic
McCartney and Ellis, 2010 states that motivation starts as early as the language acquisition stages for children. This article illustrates that a child’s young ages point to the duality present in motivation which can be extrinsic and intrinsic (McCartney and Ellis, 2010, 2). However, engagement in students is initiated by intrinsic attributes reinforced by the resources and strategies applied around them regarding their behaviour and perception of language. Hence, instructors achieve success through perseverance and practice effects implemented in school classroom setups (McCartney and Ellis, 2010l, 1). In essence, these mechanisms enhance engagement which aids in overcoming communication, speech, and language barriers. Statistics show that every school in the UK has 2-3 children who suffer from communication and speech complications which hinder comprehension and overall academic performance. This phenomenon especially affects children who cannot break down words into phonemic and morphological attributes, which negatively affects their ability to understand the definitions and applications in context. Teachers, therefore, must implement curricular coherence, purposeful tasks, student choices, and collaboration among peers to facilitate better understanding.
Intrinsic motivation arises where an environment supports activities that stimulate the individual’s interest and give the individual a feel of spontaneity in their performance. For instance, an environment rich in verbal rewards has been found to enhance intrinsic motivation far more than tangible rewards (Deci et al. 2001). This being applicable to both environmental conditions of the classroom and at home. However, the question asked, is there importance surrounding who might deliver these verbal rewards? It has been confirmed that teachers, peers, and parents all play a significant role within a child’s achievement (Marchant et al. 2001). Conducting a study to explore student motivation, Marchant et al. (2001), assessed the parenting styles and involvement in contrast to the school environment. The study found that student motivation and competence held a strong relationship with their perceptions of their parents’ values (Marchant et al. 2001). Therefore, parental involvement is key for a child’s academic attainment, particularly should the future hold more home-online learning. Yet to navigate online learning, a degree of independence and drive is necessary. This, however, presents the opportunity for autonomy through elements of choice and self-direction which have been known to enhance intrinsic motivation (Deci and Ryan, 1985). Additionally, extrinsically motivated students are argued by Ryan and Deci to be
driven by the desired attainment of a “separable outcome” or reward and fulfilment achieved by those who are intrinsically motivated.
Stipek defines motivation by factors linked only to intrinsic motivation (Stipek, 1996). They frame a motivated student as tackling challenging tasks and assignments “eagerly”, investing “intense effort” and becoming “actively engaged in the learning process”. These students take a great deal of pleasure in the trials presented by academic tasks and of pride in their achievements within these tasks. The hallmarks of extrinsic motivation are not included within Stipek’s definition of a motivated student, as they explicitly excluded those who are motivated by the desire to “obtain some reward unrelated to the task itself (Stipek, 1996). It can be argued that this creates a very narrow view of motivation within the classroom and may set a bar too high – as intrinsic motivation is often the most difficult to cultivate, within those feeling demotivated or unattached to the tasks sent their way. This viewpoint is far less ‘forgiving’ than other academics, as it appears to suggest that the only true motivation comes from within – not only a challenging prospect for many students, but also inaccessible to many with special educational needs. Overall, despite disagreement over the motive behind the motivation (intrinsic or extrinsic), the profile of a ‘motivated student’ appears to be attentive, actively participating, tackling difficult tasks and, preferably, doing so with an eagerness and curiosity to learn.
According to Kamardeen, 2015, the critical self-reflection applied in the Brookfield theory of pedagogy when defining quality teaching. This article illustrates teachers seeking to advance their quality must implement research in two phases which are reflective instruction followed by case study analysis to assess the program’s effectiveness. This principle is based on evaluating student, colleague, literature, and personal views on the instruction offered towards academic achievement. Ideally, one should constantly evaluate the traits that make an effective educator such as their delivery, resources utilised, and the assessment method applied. The student feedback gathered through this study states that learners preferred instructors that were friendly, punctual, respectful, and listened to issues or concerns (Kamardeen, 2015, 66). Additionally, the students favoured delivery methods such as group activities and one on one support over in-flexible teaching founded on one-way communication. Therefore, the Brookfield method enforces self-reflection aspects with lead to changes in teaching methods in a classroom setting.
Brookfield’s teaching theory can help motivate positive change through a series of actions. According to Badia 2017, personnel should explain the content, define problems, planning learning assessment or intervention and implementation of ethics of specified codes. These principles are later reinforced by reflection as it improves engagement or participation within students and teachers. Badia 2017 states that professors who explain learner interpretation of course principles reinforce Brookfield’s colleague lenses which makes the information resonate among students (Badia, 2017, 709). Thus, these values demonstrate the motivation quality present created by enforcing the theory in learning institutions.
Classroom Motivation – Year 7
Studies into disruptive behaviour in classrooms also point to the value offered by motivation in a student’s mind. According to Ikeogu (n.d.), students 9-11 years old believed that goal achievement and self-determination theory were the best approaches to boost engagement when addressing wayward behaviour in class. Most participants noted that the perceptions about their learning ability alongside their thoughts on the school contributed heavily to how they carried themselves during the learning process. In essence, the self-determination theory postulates that every human being is curious and inherently predisposed to learn about their environment. Similarly, the goal theory identifies a target unique to a child, which later acts as an intrinsic motivation spurring them towards excellence. These qualities manifest in a classroom setting as instructors communicate their beliefs on achievement and the overwhelming potential present in every child. Consequently, this approach fosters a sense of belonging, which is later reinforced by the stronger student-teacher relations, community perceptions, and secure social relations within a child’s environment (Ikeogu, n.d., 22).
Moreover, a disruption-free classroom can be created through numerous activities that simultaneously encourage motivation among students. One of the most prominent examples involves intentionally creating an appealing learning environment with pleasing visual and hearing conditions that emphasize collaboration rather than competition. Additionally, teachers streamline communication by creating feedback opportunities that encourage support and positive peer relationships among classmates. For example, students in Scotland employ a ‘show of thumbs’ technique where an upright digit insinuates understanding. A parallel finger shows less clarity, and a downward presentation indicates no comprehension or total confusion (McCartney and Ellis, 2010, 4). Teachers also implement curricular coherence to break down the topics ahead to familiarise the students with the new concepts better to be introduced. These attributes combined with verbal, non-verbal, and visual aids mould behaviour while making school systems appealing (McCartney and Ellis, 2010, 4). However, these methods are complicated by the standardised approach to teaching that prioritises routine over individualised instruction for wholesome understanding.
Saeed and Zyngier, 2012 analyses the idea that educators are often inspired to create psychological relationships within their course content. The findings from this research fault the repetitive nature in teaching systems today as it eliminates the creative thought processes that can lead to machine-like compliance, mental retreat, or rebellion in extreme cases. The self-determination theory relies heavily on collaborative efforts between engagement and motivation. Initially, one must be motivated to learn, which is an intrinsic quality present in humanity. However, engagement in learning is often the determinant between positive and negative academic achievement. The communication offered in schools must go beyond comprehension of facts to address behaviour, overall effect, and emotions experienced by children with the institutions. Moreover, this messaging must cover personal aspects such as family and community circumstances as they affect a child psychologically. Hence, instructors work to create a supposed psychological investment (Saeed and Zyngier, 2012, 252). The findings from this research fault the repetitive nature in teaching systems today as it eliminates the creative thought processes that can lead to machine-like compliance, mental retreat, or rebellion in extreme cases. At the same time, students are intuitively willing to participate and accomplish tasks. This feature can be improved through increased autonomy, competency rewards, and relatedness due to intrinsic and extrinsic features (Saeed and Zyngier, 2012, 254). One of the approaches used to implement this theory is reciprocal teaching. This term describes a situation where learners teach their peers in small groups, which sharpens their summary, questioning, clarity, and prediction skills.
Good teacher-student relations also enhance the self-determination theory in pedagogy. This feat is achieved by ensuring that all instructors employ positive behaviours that motivate those under their influence. Essentially, this approach favours theory in that it seeks to instigate engagement through positive attitudes among the staff. For example, studies such as Cents-Boonstra et al. (2020) found that the teaching behaviours witnessed among teachers affected relatedness and guidance, which are the pillars of all engagement (Cents-Boonstra et al., 2020). Additionally, in situations where the children were less engaged, there was chaos and repeated disruption. Studies show that instructors who start their lessons with enthusiasm backed by activation of their learners’ minds within the first 15 minutes of a session. These educators also assist the children in comprehension as they aid in carrying out assignments.
Conversely, low engagement in the classroom can be determined by an excessive need to control the outcome and thinking process, chaotic interpretation, and cold readings which lack relatable material. Poor instructors limit their student’s productivity through yelling, intimidation, guilt, shaming, and anxiety. Some educators also neglect and reject some learners, which manifests the cold reading aspect within the self-determination theory paradigm. Therefore, student-teacher relations can negatively or positively affect students as this aspect controls the outcome from instruction and one’s general perception of school.
The Social Constructivist Theory
This relationship aspect also affects the possibility of a positive language acquisition exercise when learning a second language. Though most foreign languages today are taught through applications, their primary instruction happens in a classroom setting. According to Lamb (2017), learners’ attitudes towards a language and its speakers significantly affect their motivation to study. The social constructivist theory initially propagated this idea. This ideology states that knowledge acquisition relies solely on using a common language and the effective interaction between people. Hence, all information manifests as a shared experience shared down from one generation to another. This reasoning elevated the value of social interactions as they provide the avenue for the effective impartation of knowledge and facts even in language acquisition (Lamb, 2017, 304). Essentially, this feat is tested in anglophone nations where the choice to go to school is taken away from the child, leaving them reluctant to learn. This situation leaves the teachers’ reactions as the sole motivation to study and remain focused on the task. Therefore, the lesson plans must integrate identities and current interests that attract the learners and spark an interest in the course material.
Micro and Macro Strategies in Teaching
Similar studies on language acquisition have shown that teachers can positively influence their learners and apply micro and macro strategies. Though these activities are numerous, they all seek to create a healthy teaching environment while instilling confidence in their students. For example, Lamb (2017) found over 102-small changes that one can make as an instructor to foster a space that inspires thoughts and creativity for the child. These activities include subtle aspects such as increasing the chances for expected success whenever interacting with a student. Explaining concepts in the form of purpose and utility to foster relatability and overall curiosity. Integrating self-evaluation into the basic assessment grades by instigating reflection on the outcomes presented to the learners (Lamb, 2017, 309). Essentially, these alterations can be made to one’s teaching regiment or daily interactions with learners to generate a motivation-filled environment within the learning institution.
Another micro and macro tactic employed by teachers to influence motivation is the use of trust-building interactions. Johnson 2017 demonstrates micro and macro tactic employed by teachers to influence motivation is the use of trust-building interactions. Gradually building a student-teacher relation helps one understand their students better. The article prioritises the considerate effort to identify a student’s strengths, weaknesses, passions, and interests build trust. Subsequently, these interactions necessitate an open-minded approach that allows for seamless sharing of ideas, struggles, and failures that fulfil an intrinsic need to fulfil relationships (Johnson, 2017). Hence, the bonds fostered motivate the student to perform and learn within the school. These aspects create a form of intrinsic manifestation that encourages students to instil self-regulated achievement and learning, which transforms performance and emotional standing with encourages a willingness to work. Therefore, fostering trust through student-teacher interactions can result in intrinsic motivation geared towards academic success and adequate emotional health.
Lamb 2017 also states that teachers can utilise extrinsic motivators to spur creativity and passion for learning among their learners. One of the most common forms of this tool is the giving of awards. Teachers in Asia tend to favour awards over other forms of encouragement as they employ a different approach to cohesive groups. Additionally, they use a competitive theme where those who pass develop confidence due to the intragroup competition enforced in schools in that region. The alertness is exemplified by students learning a second language. This approach differentiates anglophone countries from non-anglophone nations in their teaching regiments (Lamb, 2017, 314). Greater efficiency and results also come from reflective practice and techniques which assess cause and effect patterns that affect the teaching and comprehension within schools. This impact allows for better interaction fuelled by the educator’s empathy levels that increase with the years of experience. These elements contribute to improved engagement and overall academic potential in children as they interact with teachers.
The school system should also change to accommodate and give priority to the pupils’ voices. Essentially, this theme goes beyond listening to feedback and responses along the teaching process. It focuses on generally involving the children as vital stakeholders in the education sector in policy and procedure creation. According to Husbands and Pearce (2012), the learners should be consulted regularly on any substantial changes to be implemented within the system. Since these aspects directly affect their lives, the students gain the advantage of feeling as though they are in direct control of the outcomes they witness in schools. While this incentive can address disruptive and unruly behaviour in classrooms, it increases motivation as participants feel responsible for the positive outcomes projected from their suggestions. This shift in mentality can alter a child’s course for the better as it puts them in charge of their destiny while promoting autonomy and critical thinking when solving problems in life.
Another strategy that is remains overlooked involves students writing reflections on how the course taught has affected their lives. When discussing the self-determination theory, the notion of relevance stands out in a child’s path to success. The significance of learning must have a direct relation and impact on someone’s life for it to have long-lasting results beyond simple knowledge acquisition. Essentially, the ability to apply the skill learned in solving today’s problems remains the higher purpose attached to education. Teachers who exercise this approach request reflection reports on how the course material has influenced the learner’s perception of the world around them (Johnson, 2017, 47). The realisation that what one is learning throughout the day intricately affects their life initiates a sense of motivation as it portrays the information’s value. Hence, the concept of reflection helps refocus one’s attention towards the relevance of the details taught while simultaneously influencing innate motivations to want to know more.
Nagle, 2021 studies the impact self-perception has on learning especially when assessing language acquisition. The findings motivate instructors to focus on instilling a positive self-image beyond the typical education system and subjects. Teachers should also focus on instilling a positive self-image beyond the typical education system and subjects. Teachers should implement strategies that point to the strengths and passions enshrined in a student’s personality. This feat is achieved by focusing on the successes and positive aspects presented by the learner. Additionally, educators should provide constructive criticism that reinforces the positive elements overlooked when making the error while correcting some mistakes. Teachers should also set realistic goals that encourage productivity within their learners as they teach children to like themselves. The growth mindset encompassed by this strategy elevates this principle while instigating a sense of ownership within the student population. This element touches on the intricate aspects of the belonging principle, which initiates motivation as one feels personally attached to the system in place.
Reflection on the different strategies used, merit systems to motivate the students of Year 7 intrinsically/extrinsically, will be undertaken using Brookfield’s Four Lenses (Brookfield, 1995). Covering the views of myself, students, and peers to gain a better understanding of how the views in the academic literature can be seen in practice inside a Year 7 classroom.
Motivational Strategies within a Year 7 class
With the purpose of understanding the purpose and effectiveness of rewards as a means of inspiring extrinsic motivation within a Year 7 classroom, I undertook an investigation of sorts, whereby I observed task engagement, task completion rate and various responses that arose when ‘Merits’ were and were not being obtainable. Merits are awards for Mastery, Integrity, Courage and Community work being done anywhere at school – encouraging effort as well as achievement. Achieving milestones of merit as individuals or as a class can entail in their parents/guardians receiving a message exclaiming their achievement of merits and how they have been achieved.
In class, these merits are awarded via several factors, behaviour, participation in class, work being done to a high individual standard, courage in attempting to answer difficult questions – regardless of it being right or wrong, if they are trying their utmost best. They can also receive numerous amounts of merits for becoming star of the lesson – showing 100 % focus, attainment, and participation through the lesson. These merits can be communicated to the students during lesson, so acts as an inducement rather than a reward too. For example, “Lets see who earned a merit, who can answer the stretch question correctly”. I believe that this method certifies students to begin with motivation when tackling and completing tasks. They were also given ‘shout outs’ during assembly for certain tasks or challenges, such as great achievement during tests, working extremely well during enrichment activities or generally going the extra mile in as task. The ‘Shout outs’ were put in place as a means of incentivising their motivation to tackle demanding work and to have a chance to have a moment of appreciation by not only their peers but by member of X academy faculty.
Perspective from Year 7 pupils in my class
Gaining an insight into the pupils’ perspective in terms of motivation, could be seen from their actions and remarks during my lessons. On various circumstances, when it came to attaining a merit, I received comments from students. “X got a merit, but I was thinking the same thing”, “I let X use my sharpener, that’s a community merit”, “I finished my work first, where’s my merit” etc. The perspective of the students showed an eagerness in earning merits and frustrated when their efforts were not met with consistent rewards. However, during lessons when no merits/few merits were awarded, they understood that they didn’t reach the required level in attaining those merits. Similarly, their attitude towards receiving a ‘check’ – a warning usually issued when talking during independent task, misbehaving, or not fully focused on work, the students would also protest the unfairness of it i.e., “X was talking to me first, where’s X’s check”. The attitude towards ‘checks’ and ‘merits’ were similar throughout.
X Academy peer observational reports
Usually, the idea of motivation can be accomplished through a various array of techniques used by teachers. Thought tutors mainly focus on conveying information into the young eager minds, they are challenged with a greater purpose attached to their ability to spur spontaneity and motivation for further learning. With one of my year 7 classes, I share this with a more experienced colleague, so I benefit from often being observed with debriefing happening at the end of the day. Aid in scaffolding, planning lessons and experiments. This gives me a fantastic opportunity to identify my colleague’s perception on motivation within the same class, rather than general views on motivation.
Miss X also believes that students are motivated by the opportunity to earn merits for tasks and feel a sense of pride when earning them. When asking colleagues who have been here before the school’s system in addition of merits, they have stated that “merits are a great way to ensure students are motivated in completing tasks to the best of their ability”. However other peers have also noted that, dependent on the form class, there is a small decrease since the beginning of the year in specific classes when attaining merits. This is evident in tutor groups, which I have observed in where there is not praise of students who have earned the most merits this week in front of their peers. This now brings into account of pride in their achievements as I’ve mentioned before as well as peer accountability. I am fortunate to have benefitted from this awareness of how different form teachers motivated their students and the enthusiasm it can entail throughout all subjects..
Generally, the theme of motivation can be achieved through numerous avenues implemented by teachers. Though tutors primarily focus on imparting information into the eager young minds, they are tasked with a higher purpose attached to their ability to spur creativity and motivation for further learning. Besides the advantages attached to teaching information, instructors should integrate principles such as the self-determination theory, social collaboration, teacher-student relations, intrinsic incentives, and parental participation, which influence motivation. These themes of motivation work to implement positive changes that maximise academic and social productivity within every learner in schools.
1) Antunes, F., Pina-Oliveira, A., Apostolico, M. and Puggina, A., 2020. Motivation of classroom attendance students for the use of digital technologies in online courses. Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem, 41.
2) Badia, G. (2017). Combining Critical Reflection and Action Research to Improve Pedagogy. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 17(4), pp.695–720.
3) Brookfield, S., 1995: Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.
4) Cents-Boonstra, M., Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A., Denessen, E., Aelterman, N. and Haerens, L. (2020). Fostering student engagement with motivating teaching: an observation study of teacher and student behaviours. Research Papers in Education, pp.1–26.
5) Chambers, D., 2007. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17969862/. Chronobiology in Psychiatry, 9(3), pp.237-255.
6) Deci, E.L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R.M. (2001). Extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation in education: Reconsidered once again. Review of Educational Research, 71, 1–27.
7) Hill, N. and Tyson, D., 2009. Parental involvement in middle school: A meta-analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental Psychology, 45(3), pp.740-763.
8) Husbands, C. and Pearce, J. (2012). What makes great pedagogy? Nine claims from research. Research and development network national themes: theme one, [online] pp.1–16. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/329746/what-makes-great-pedagogy-nine-claims-from-research.pdf.
9) Ikeogu, N. (n.d.). An exploration of the link between pupil motivation and disruptive behaviour in the classroom. The Institute of Education, University of London, pp.1–152.
10) Johnson, D. (2017). The Role of Teachers in Motivating Students To Learn. BU Journal of Graduate Studies in Education, [online] 9(1), pp.46–49. Available at: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1230415.pdf.
11) Kamardeen, I. (2015). Critically Reflective Pedagogical Model: a Pragmatic Blueprint for Enhancing Learning and Teaching in Construction Disciplines. Construction Economics and Building, 15(4), pp.63–75.
12) Lamb, M. (2017). The motivational dimension of language teaching. Language Teaching, [online] 50(3), pp.301–346. Available at: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/language-teaching/article/motivational-dimension-of-language-teaching/9864206780CE9442AEDD6DFBEEFCDB41.
13) Marchant, G.J., Paulson, S.E., & Rothlisberg, B.A. (2001). Relations of middle school students’ perceptions of family and school contexts with academic achievement. Psychology in the Schools, 38(6), 505–519.
14) McCartney, E. and Ellis, S. (2010). Motivating children who struggle with language. Supporting students who struggle with language The University of Strathclyde, [online] pp.1–9. Available at: https://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/20640/1/strathprints020640.pdf.
15) Moè, A., Katz, I. and Alesi, M., 2018. Scaffolding for motivation by parents, and child homework motivations and emotions: Effects of a training programme. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(2), pp.323-344.
16) Nagle, C. (2021). Using Expectancy Value Theory to understand motivation, persistence, and achievement in university‐level foreign language learning. Foreign Language Annals, pp.1–19.
17) Ofsted., 2019 [ebook] Available at: <https://files.ofsted.gov.uk/v1/file/50121842> [Accessed 30 August 2021].
18) Ofsted Report., 2013 [ebook] Ofsted. Available at: <https://michaelpavey.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/copland-ofsted-report.pdf> [Accessed 30 August 2021].
19) Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68
20) Saeed, S. and Zyngier, D. (2012). How Motivation Influences Student Engagement: A Qualitative Case Study. Journal of Education and Learning, [online] 1(2), pp.253–267. Available at: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1081372.pdf.
21) Stipek, D., 1996: “Motivation and Instruction” in Berliner, D. and Calfee, R., Handbook of Educational Psychology. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan. 85-113.
22) Taylor, S. (2017). Contested Knowledge: A Critical Review of the Concept of Differentiation in Teaching and Learning. Warwick Journal of Education, 1, pp.55–68.
23) Websites Pearson Education Limited (2020). Principles And Practice Motivating And Engaging Students In Further Education Maths.